Most of the long-range solvers perform their computation in K-space, hence the name of this command. If the Coulombic case, this means each charge in the system interacts with charges in an infinite array of periodic images of the simulation domain.
Note that using a long-range solver requires use of a matching pair style to perform consistent short-range pairwise calculations. This means that the name of the pair style contains a matching keyword to the name of the KSpace style, as in this table:. The ewald style performs a standard Ewald summation as described in any solid-state physics text.
It also performs standard Coulombic Ewald summations, but in a more efficient manner than the ewald style. The optional smallq argument defines the cutoff for the absolute charge value which determines whether a particle is considered charged or not.
Its default value is 1. This can reduce force aliasing errors and increase the accuracy of the method for a given mesh size. Or a coarser mesh can be used for the same target accuracy, which saves CPU time. However, there is a trade-off since FFTs on two meshes are now performed which increases the computation required. See CeruttiNeelovand Hockney for details of the method.
For high relative accuracy, using staggered PPPM allows the mesh size to be reduced by a factor of 2 in each dimension as compared to regular PPPM for the same target accuracy. This can give up to a 4x speedup in the KSpace time 8x less mesh points, 2x more expensive. However, for low relative accuracy, the staggered PPPM mesh size may be essentially the same as for regular PPPM, which means the method will be up to 2x slower in the KSpace time simply 2x more expensive. For more details and timings, see the Speed tips doc page.
This can be done by either choosing the Ewald and grid parameters, or by specifying separate accuracies for the real and kspace calculations. When not making any settings, the simulation will stop with an error message.
Further information on the influence of the parameters and how to choose them is described in Isele-HolderIsele-Holder2 and the Howto dispersion doc page. This setting also changes some of the PPPM operations e.
This option can speed-up long-range calculations, particularly in parallel or on GPUs. The msm style invokes a multi-level summation method MSM solver, Hardy or Hardy2which maps atom charge to a 3d mesh, and uses a multi-level hierarchy of coarser and coarser meshes on which direct Coulomb solvers are done.
It may therefore be faster than the other K-space solvers for relatively large problems when running on large core counts. MSM can also be used for non-periodic boundary conditions and for mixed periodic and non-periodic boundaries. MSM is most competitive versus Ewald and PPPM when only relatively low accuracy forces, about 1e-4 relative error or less accurate, are needed.
Note that use of a larger Coulombic cutoff i. Currently calculation of the full pressure tensor in MSM is expensive. The scalar pressure can be used, for example, to run an isotropic barostat. If the full pressure tensor is needed, then calculating the pressure at every timestep or using a fixed pressure simulation with MSM will cause the code to run slower. Participants of the consortium were the Universities of Bonn, Chemnitz, Stuttgart, and Wuppertal as well as the Forschungszentrum Juelich.
See details on this page. This also means the total Coulombic energy short- and long-range will be tallied for thermodynamic output command as part of the elong keyword; the ecoul keyword will be zero. The specified method determines which ScaFaCoS algorithm is used.By analytically deriving the BOP from quantum mechanical theory its transferability to different phases can approach that of quantum mechanical methods.
A system with only a subset of these elements, including a single element e. The detailed formulas for this potential are given in Ward Ward ; here we provide only a brief description. These smooth cutoffs ensure stable behavior at situations with high sampling near the cutoff such as melts and surfaces.
The bond-orders can be viewed as environment-dependent local variables that are ij bond specific. This enables the incorporation of dihedral angles effects. Likewise, the BOP potential files list atomic masses; thus you do not need to use the mass command to specify them. Note that for BOP potentials with hydrogen, you will likely want to set the mass of H atoms to be 10x or 20x larger to avoid having to use a tiny timestep. The save keyword gives you the option to calculate in advance and store a set of distances, angles, and derivatives of angles.
The default is to not do this, but to calculate them on-the-fly each time they are needed. The former may be faster, but takes more memory. The latter requires less memory, but may be slower. It is best to test this option to optimize the speed of BOP for your particular system configuration.
As an example, imagine the CdTe. This format also assumes the angular functions have the formulation of Ward.
The first line is followed by N lines containing the atomic number, mass, and element symbol of each element. Following the definition of the elements several global variables for the tabulated functions are given. Each block has nr entries with 5 entries per line. Each block has nBOt entries with 5 entries per line.
This format also assumes the angular functions have the formulation of Zhou. The function can contain up to 10 term thus 10 constants. The first line can contain up to five constants. The first two lines are followed by N lines containing the atomic number, mass, and element symbol of each element. This pair style does not write its information to binary restart filessince it is stored in potential files.
It does not support the innermiddleouter keywords. See the Build package doc page for more info.3 Famous Dance Moves - Footwork Tutorial in Hindi - Simple Hip Hop steps for beginners
The CdTe. Pettifor and I. Oleinik, Phys. B, 59, B, 65, Murdick D. Murdick, X.In LAMMPS, pair potentials are defined between pairs of atoms that are within a cutoff distance and the set of active interactions typically changes over time. Hybrid models where specified pairs of atom types interact via different pair potentials can be setup using the hybrid pair style.
Details on these options as they pertain to individual potentials are described on the doc page for the potential. Likewise, info on whether the potential information is stored in a restart file is listed on the potential doc page. In the formulas listed for each pair style, E is the energy of a pairwise interaction between two atoms separated by a distance r. The force between the atoms is the negative derivative of this expression. The distance s can be smaller or larger than the dimensions of the simulation box.
They are also listed in more compact form on the Commands pair doc page. The individual style names on the Commands pair doc page are followed by one or more of g,i,k,o,t to indicate which accelerated styles exist. Some pair styles are part of specific packages.
See the Build package doc page for more info. The doc pages for individual pair potentials tell if it is part of a package. Version: 15 Apr User Documentation 1. Introduction 2.
Commands 6. Optional packages 7. Accelerate performance 8. Howto discussions 9. Example scripts Auxiliary tools Errors Style eam computes pairwise interactions for metals and metal alloys using embedded-atom method EAM potentials Daw.
The total energy Ei of an atom I is given by. The multi-body nature of the EAM potential is a result of the embedding energy term. Both summations in the formula are over all neighbors J of atom I within the cutoff distance. Either single element or alloy systems can be modeled using multiple funcfl files and style eam.
These files require no mixing since they specify alloy interactions explicitly. Likewise, the EAM potential files list atomic masses; thus you do not need to use the mass command to specify them. Different single-element files can be assigned to different atom types to model an alloy system. The mixing to create alloy potentials for type pairs with I! The mass is in mass unitse. The cubic lattice constant is in Angstroms. On line 3, Nrho and Nr are the number of tabulated values in the subsequent arrays, drho and dr are the spacing in density and distance space for the values in those arrays, and the specified cutoff becomes the pairwise cutoff used by LAMMPS for the potential.
The values for each array can be listed as multiple values per line, so long as each array starts on a new line. The units for the embedding function F are eV. The units for the density function rho are the same as for drho see above, electron density.
Setfl files can be used to model a single-element or alloy system. In the alloy case, as explained above, setfl files contain explicit tabulated values for alloy interactions. Thus they allow more generality than funcfl files for modeling alloys. Note that there is no requirement that your simulation use all the elements specified by the setfl file.
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If a mapping value is specified as NULL, the mapping is not performed. The NULL values are placeholders for atom types that will be used with other potentials. The meaning and units of the values in line 5 is the same as for the funcfl file described above. Note that the cutoff in Angstroms is a global value, valid for all pairwise interactions for all element pairings.
Following the 5 header lines are Nelements sections, one for each element, each with the following format:.The gayberne styles compute a Gay-Berne anisotropic LJ interaction Berardi between pairs of ellipsoidal particles or an ellipsoidal and spherical particle via the formulas. For large uniform molecules it has been shown that the energy parameters are approximately representable in terms of local contact curvatures Everaers :.
The variable names utilized as potential parameters are for the most part taken from Everaers in order to be consistent with the RE-squared pair potential. Details on the upsilon and mu parameters are given here. More details of the Gay-Berne formulation are given in the references listed below and in this supplementary document. The last coefficient is optional. If you do list them when I! This is much cheaper to compute than the full Gay-Berne formula. The one exception is that if the 3 shape parameters are set to 0.
Styles with a gpuintelkkompor opt suffix are functionally the same as the corresponding style without the suffix. They have been optimized to run faster, depending on your available hardware, as discussed on the Speed packages doc page.
The accelerated styles take the same arguments and should produce the same results, except for round-off and precision issues. See the Build package doc page for more info. You can specify the accelerated styles explicitly in your input script by including their suffix, or you can use the -suffix command-line switch when you invoke LAMMPS, or you can use the suffix command in your input script.
See the Speed packages doc page for more instructions on how to use the accelerated styles effectively. For atom type pairs I,J and I! The default mix value is geometric. There is no shifting performed for ellipsoidal interactions due to the anisotropic dependence of the interaction.
It does not support the innermiddleouter keywords. It also require they store a per-type shape. The particles cannot store a per-particle diameter.
Particles acted on by the potential can be finite-size aspherical or spherical particles, or point particles. Spherical particles have all 3 of their shape parameters equal to each other. Point particles have all 3 of their shape parameters equal to 0. The Gay-Berne potential does not become isotropic as r increases Everaers. The distance-of-closest-approach approximation used by LAMMPS becomes less accurate when high-aspect ratio ellipsoids are used.
Version: 15 Apr User Documentation 1. Introduction 2. Commands 6. Optional packages 7. Accelerate performance 8. Howto discussions 9. Example scripts Auxiliary tools Errors Allen Allen and Germano, Mol PhysThe granular styles support a variety of options for the normal, tangential, rolling and twisting forces resulting from contact between two granular particles.
The total computed forces and torques are the sum of various models selected for the normal, tangential, rolling and twisting modes of motion. Unlike e. If the contact model choice is the same for two particle types, the mixing for the cross-coefficients can be carried out automatically. This is shown in the last example, where model choices are the same for type 1 - type 1 as for type 2 - type2 interactions, but coefficients are different.
In this case, the mixed coefficients for type 1 - type 2 interactions can be determined from mixing rules discussed below.
For additional flexibility, coefficients as well as model forms can vary between particle types, as shown in the fourth example: type 1 - type 1 interactions are based on a Johnson-Kendall-Roberts normal contact model and interactions are based on a DMT cohesive model see below. Currently supported options for normal contact models and their required arguments are:. For the hooke model, the normal, elastic component of force acting on particle i due to contact with particle j is given by:.
The dmt model corresponds to the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov cohesive model, where the force is simply Hertz with an additional attractive cohesion term:. The jkr model is the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts model, where the force is computed as:.
Additionally, note that the JKR model allows for a tensile force beyond contact i. The damping keyword and corresponding model form selection may be appended anywhere in the pair coeff command. Note that the choice of damping model affects both the normal and tangential damping and depending on other settings, potentially also the twisting damping.
The options for the damping model currently supported are:. If the damping keyword is not specified, the viscoelastic model is used by default. For damping velocitythe normal damping is simply equal to the user-specified damping coefficient in the normal model:.
pair_style bop command
The damping viscoelastic model is based on the viscoelastic treatment of Brilliantov et alwhere the normal damping is given by:. The tsuji model is based on the work of Tsuji et al. The required keyword tangential is expected, followed by the model choice and associated parameters. Currently supported tangential model choices and their expected parameters are as follows:. Thus, the damping keyword also affects the tangential damping. The remaining tangential options all use accumulated tangential displacement i.
This accumulated tangential displacement must be adjusted to account for changes in the frame of reference of the contacting pair of particles during contact. This occurs due to the overall motion of the contacting particles in a rigid-body-like fashion during the duration of the contact.
This follows the discussion in Ludingsee equation 17 and relevant discussion in that work:. Furthermore, when the tangential force exceeds the critical force, the tangential displacement is re-scaled to match the value for the critical force see Ludingequation 20 and related discussion :.
The tangential force is added to the total normal force elastic plus damping to produce the total force on the particle.
The tangential force also acts at the contact point defined as the center of the overlap region to induce a torque on each particle according to:. The tangential force is given by:. In this case, mixing of the shear modulus for different particle types i and j is done according to:. This rescaling accounts for the fact that a decrease in the contact area upon unloading leads to the contact being unable to support the previous tangential loading, and spurious energy is created without the rescaling above Walton.
See also discussion in Thornton et al,particularly equation 18 b of that work and associated discussion. The optional rolling keyword enables rolling friction, which resists pure rolling motion of particles.
The options currently supported are:. Unlike the formulation in Marshallthis allows for the required adjustment of rolling displacement due to changes in the frame of reference of the contacting pair. The rolling pseudo-force is computed analogously to the tangential force:. This differs from the expressions given by Kuhn and Bagi and used in Marshall ; see Wang et al for details.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.
It is noticed that deep potential is not a "pairwise" interaction, but a multi-body interaction. This pair style takes the deep potential defined in a model file that usually has the. The model can be trained and frozen by package DeePMD-kit. The model deviation evalulate the consistency of the force predictions from multiple models. By default, only the maximal, minimal and averge model deviations are output. If the key atomic is set, then the model deviation of force prediction of each atom will be output.
By default, the model deviation is output in absolute value. If the keyword relative is set, then the relative model deviation will be output. The relative model deviation of the force on atom i is defined by. When using the atomic key word of deepmd is set, one should not use this pair style with MPI parallelization. Skip to content. Permalink Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.
pair_style granular command
Branch: master. Find file Copy path. Cannot retrieve contributors at this time. Raw Blame History. Default is If this keyword is set, the model deviation of each atom will be output. You signed in with another tab or window.
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